Logical Reasoning for Natural Language Inference Using Generated Facts as Atoms

Joe Stacey, Pasquale Minervini, Haim Dubossarsky, Oana-Maria Camburu, Marek Rei

State-of-the-art neural models can now reach human performance levels across various natural language understanding tasks. However, despite this impressive performance, models are known to learn from annotation artefacts at the expense of the underlying task. While interpretability methods can identify influential features for each prediction, there are no guarantees that these features are responsible for the model decisions. Instead, we introduce a model-agnostic logical framework to determine the specific information in an input responsible for each model decision. This method creates interpretable Natural Language Inference (NLI) models that maintain their predictive power. We achieve this by generating facts that decompose complex NLI observations into individual logical atoms. Our model makes predictions for each atom and uses logical rules to decide the class of the observation based on the predictions for each atom. We apply our method to the highly challenging ANLI dataset, where our framework improves the performance of both a DeBERTa-base and BERT baseline. Our method performs best on the most challenging examples, achieving a new state-of-the-art for the ANLI round 3 test set. We outperform every baseline in a reduced-data setting, and despite using no annotations for the generated facts, our model predictions for individual facts align with human expectations.

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