Analysis of a class of randomized numerical methods for singular matrix pencils

Daniel Kressner, Bor Plestenjak

The numerical solution of the generalized eigenvalue problem for a singular matrix pencil is challenging due to the discontinuity of its eigenvalues. Classically, such problems are addressed by first extracting the regular part through the staircase form and then applying a standard solver, such as the QZ algorithm. Recently, several novel approaches have been proposed to transform the singular pencil into a regular pencil by relatively simple randomized modifications. In this work, we analyze three such methods by Hochstenbach, Mehl, and Plestenjak that modify, project, or augment the pencil using random matrices. All three methods rely on the normal rank and do not alter the finite eigenvalues of the original pencil. In this work we analyze these methods and show that the eigenvalue condition numbers of the transformed pencils are unlikely to be much larger than the $\delta$-weak eigenvalue condition numbers, introduced by Lotz and Noferini, of the original pencil. This not only indicates favorable numerical stability but also shows that these condition numbers are a reliable criterion for detecting finite eigenvalues. We also provide evidence that, from a numerical stability perspective, the use of complex instead of real random matrices is preferable even for real singular matrix pencils and real eigenvalues.

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