Energy-frugal and Interpretable AI Hardware Design using Learning Automata

Rishad Shafik, Tousif Rahman, Adrian Wheeldon, Ole-Christoffer Granmo, Alex Yakovlev

Energy efficiency is a crucial requirement for enabling powerful artificial intelligence applications at the microedge. Hardware acceleration with frugal architectural allocation is an effective method for reducing energy. Many emerging applications also require the systems design to incorporate interpretable decision models to establish responsibility and transparency. The design needs to provision for additional resources to provide reachable states in real-world data scenarios, defining conflicting design tradeoffs between energy efficiency. is challenging. Recently a new machine learning algorithm, called the Tsetlin machine, has been proposed. The algorithm is fundamentally based on the principles of finite-state automata and benefits from natural logic underpinning rather than arithmetic. In this paper, we investigate methods of energy-frugal artificial intelligence hardware design by suitably tuning the hyperparameters, while maintaining high learning efficacy. To demonstrate interpretability, we use reachability and game-theoretic analysis in two simulation environments: a SystemC model to study the bounded state transitions in the presence of hardware faults and Nash equilibrium between states to analyze the learning convergence. Our analyses provides the first insights into conflicting design tradeoffs involved in energy-efficient and interpretable decision models for this new artificial intelligence hardware architecture. We show that frugal resource allocation coupled with systematic prodigality between randomized reinforcements can provide decisive energy reduction while also achieving robust and interpretable learning.

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