Tokenized Graph Transformer with Neighborhood Augmentation for Node Classification in Large Graphs

Jinsong Chen, Chang Liu, Kaiyuan Gao, Gaichao Li, Kun He

Graph Transformers, emerging as a new architecture for graph representation learning, suffer from the quadratic complexity on the number of nodes when handling large graphs. To this end, we propose a Neighborhood Aggregation Graph Transformer (NAGphormer) that treats each node as a sequence containing a series of tokens constructed by our proposed Hop2Token module. For each node, Hop2Token aggregates the neighborhood features from different hops into different representations, producing a sequence of token vectors as one input. In this way, NAGphormer could be trained in a mini-batch manner and thus could scale to large graphs. Moreover, we mathematically show that compared to a category of advanced Graph Neural Networks (GNNs), called decoupled Graph Convolutional Networks, NAGphormer could learn more informative node representations from multi-hop neighborhoods. In addition, we propose a new data augmentation method called Neighborhood Augmentation (NrAug) based on the output of Hop2Token that augments simultaneously the features of neighborhoods from global as well as local views to strengthen the training effect of NAGphormer. Extensive experiments on benchmark datasets from small to large demonstrate the superiority of NAGphormer against existing graph Transformers and mainstream GNNs, and the effectiveness of NrAug for further boosting NAGphormer.

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