Exploring Energy-based Language Models with Different Architectures and Training Methods for Speech Recognition

Hong Liu, Zhaobiao Lv, Zhijian Ou, Wenbo Zhao, Qing Xiao

Energy-based language models (ELMs) parameterize an unnormalized distribution for natural sentences and are radically different from popular autoregressive language models (ALMs). As an important application, ELMs have been successfully used as a means for calculating sentence scores in speech recognition, but they all use less-modern CNN or LSTM networks. The recent progress in Transformer networks and large pretrained models such as BERT and GPT2 opens new possibility to further advancing ELMs. In this paper, we explore different architectures of energy functions and different training methods to investigate the capabilities of ELMs in rescoring for speech recognition, all using large pretrained models as backbones.

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