Beyond Labels: Empowering Human with Natural Language Explanations through a Novel Active-Learning Architecture

Bingsheng Yao, Ishan Jindal, Lucian Popa, Yannis Katsis, Sayan Ghosh, Lihong He, Yuxuan Lu, Shashank Srivastava, James Hendler, Dakuo Wang

Data annotation is a costly task; thus, researchers have proposed low-scenario learning techniques like Active-Learning (AL) to support human annotators; Yet, existing AL works focus only on the label, but overlook the natural language explanation of a data point, despite that real-world humans (e.g., doctors) often need both the labels and the corresponding explanations at the same time. This work proposes a novel AL architecture to support and reduce human annotations of both labels and explanations in low-resource scenarios. Our AL architecture incorporates an explanation-generation model that can explicitly generate natural language explanations for the prediction model and for assisting humans' decision-making in real-world. For our AL framework, we design a data diversity-based AL data selection strategy that leverages the explanation annotations. The automated AL simulation evaluations demonstrate that our data selection strategy consistently outperforms traditional data diversity-based strategy; furthermore, human evaluation demonstrates that humans prefer our generated explanations to the SOTA explanation-generation system.

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