PO-VINS: An Efficient Pose-Only LiDAR-Enhanced Visual-Inertial State Estimator

Hailiang Tang, Xiaoji Niu, Tisheng Zhang, Liqiang Wang, Guan Wang, Jingnan Liu

The pose-only (PO) visual representation has been proven to be equivalent to the classical multiple-view geometry, while significantly improving computational efficiency. However, its applicability for real-world navigation in large-scale complex environments has not yet been demonstrated. In this study, we present an efficient pose-only LiDAR-enhanced visual-inertial navigation system (PO-VINS) to enhance the real-time performance of the state estimator. In the visual-inertial state estimator (VISE), we propose a pose-only visual-reprojection measurement model that only contains the inertial measurement unit (IMU) pose and extrinsic-parameter states. We further integrated the LiDAR-enhanced method to construct a pose-only LiDAR-depth measurement model. Real-world experiments were conducted in large-scale complex environments, demonstrating that the proposed PO-VISE and LiDAR-enhanced PO-VISE reduce computational complexity by more than 50% and over 20%, respectively. Additionally, the PO-VINS yields the same accuracy as conventional methods. These results indicate that the pose-only solution is efficient and applicable for real-time visual-inertial state estimation.

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