AutoPaint: A Self-Inpainting Method for Unsupervised Anomaly Detection

Mehdi Astaraki, Francesca De Benetti, Yousef Yeganeh, Iuliana Toma-Dasu, Örjan Smedby, Chunliang Wang, Nassir Navab, Thomas Wendler

Robust and accurate detection and segmentation of heterogenous tumors appearing in different anatomical organs with supervised methods require large-scale labeled datasets covering all possible types of diseases. Due to the unavailability of such rich datasets and the high cost of annotations, unsupervised anomaly detection (UAD) methods have been developed aiming to detect the pathologies as deviation from the normality by utilizing the unlabeled healthy image data. However, developed UAD models are often trained with an incomplete distribution of healthy anatomies and have difficulties in preserving anatomical constraints. This work intends to, first, propose a robust inpainting model to learn the details of healthy anatomies and reconstruct high-resolution images by preserving anatomical constraints. Second, we propose an autoinpainting pipeline to automatically detect tumors, replace their appearance with the learned healthy anatomies, and based on that segment the tumoral volumes in a purely unsupervised fashion. Three imaging datasets, including PET, CT, and PET-CT scans of lung tumors and head and neck tumors, are studied as benchmarks for evaluation. Experimental results demonstrate the significant superiority of the proposed method over a wide range of state-of-the-art UAD methods. Moreover, the unsupervised method we propose produces comparable results to a robust supervised segmentation method when applied to multimodal images.

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