Asynchronous Multi-Model Federated Learning over Wireless Networks: Theory, Modeling, and Optimization

Zhan-Lun Chang, Seyyedali Hosseinalipour, Mung Chiang, Christopher G. Brinton

Federated learning (FL) has emerged as a key technique for distributed machine learning (ML). Most literature on FL has focused on systems with (i) ML model training for a single task/model, (ii) a synchronous setting for uplink/downlink transfer of model parameters, which is often unrealistic. To address this, we develop MA-FL, which considers FL with multiple downstream tasks to be trained over an asynchronous model transmission architecture. We first characterize the convergence of ML model training under MA-FL via introducing a family of scheduling tensors to capture the scheduling of devices. Our convergence analysis sheds light on the impact of resource allocation (e.g., the mini-batch size and number of gradient descent iterations), device scheduling, and individual model states (i.e., warmed vs. cold initialization) on the performance of ML models. We then formulate a non-convex mixed integer optimization problem for jointly configuring the resource allocation and device scheduling to strike an efficient trade-off between energy consumption and ML performance, which is solved via successive convex approximations. Through numerical simulations, we reveal the advantages of MA-FL in terms of model performance and network resource savings.

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