Deep-Learning-Aided Alternating Least Squares for Tensor CP Decomposition and Its Application to Massive MIMO Channel Estimation

Xiao Gong, Wei Chen, Bo Ai, Geert Leus

CANDECOMP/PARAFAC (CP) decomposition is the mostly used model to formulate the received tensor signal in a multi-domain massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system, as the receiver generally sums the components from different paths or users. To achieve accurate and low-latency channel estimation, good and fast CP decomposition algorithms are desired. The CP alternating least squares (CPALS) is the workhorse algorithm for calculating the CP decomposition. However, its performance depends on the initializations, and good starting values can lead to more efficient solutions. Existing initialization strategies are decoupled from the CPALS and are not necessarily favorable for solving the CP decomposition. To enhance the algorithm's speed and accuracy, this paper proposes a deep-learning-aided CPALS (DL-CPALS) method that uses a deep neural network (DNN) to generate favorable initializations. The proposed DL-CPALS integrates the DNN and CPALS to a model-based deep learning paradigm, where it trains the DNN to generate an initialization that facilitates fast and accurate CP decomposition. Moreover, benefiting from the CP low-rankness, the proposed method is trained using noisy data and does not require paired clean data. The proposed DL-CPALS is applied to millimeter wave MIMO orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (mmWave MIMO-OFDM) channel estimation. Experimental results demonstrate the significant improvements of the proposed method in terms of both speed and accuracy for CP decomposition and channel estimation.

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