A Laplacian Pyramid Based Generative H&E Stain Augmentation Network

Fangda Li, Zhiqiang Hu, Wen Chen, Avinash Kak

Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) staining is a widely used sample preparation procedure for enhancing the saturation of tissue sections and the contrast between nuclei and cytoplasm in histology images for medical diagnostics. However, various factors, such as the differences in the reagents used, result in high variability in the colors of the stains actually recorded. This variability poses a challenge in achieving generalization for machine-learning based computer-aided diagnostic tools. To desensitize the learned models to stain variations, we propose the Generative Stain Augmentation Network (G-SAN) -- a GAN-based framework that augments a collection of cell images with simulated yet realistic stain variations. At its core, G-SAN uses a novel and highly computationally efficient Laplacian Pyramid (LP) based generator architecture, that is capable of disentangling stain from cell morphology. Through the task of patch classification and nucleus segmentation, we show that using G-SAN-augmented training data provides on average 15.7% improvement in F1 score and 7.3% improvement in panoptic quality, respectively. Our code is available at https://github.com/lifangda01/GSAN-Demo.

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