SXVCS: An XOR-based Visual Cryptography Scheme without Noise via Linear Algebra

Zizhuo Wang, Ziyang Xu, Xingxing Jia

Visual Cryptography Schemes (VCS) based on the "XOR" operation (XVCS) exhibit significantly smaller pixel expansion and higher contrast compared to those based on the "OR" operation. Moreover, the "XOR" operation appears to possess superior qualities, as it effectively operates within a binary field, while the "OR" operation merely functions as a ring with identity. Despite these remarkable attributes, our understanding of XVCS remains limited. Especially, we have done little about the noise in the reconstructed image up to now. In this paper, we introduce a novel concept called Static XVCS (SXVCS), which completely eliminates the noise in the reconstructed image. We also demonstrate that the equivalent condition for perfect white pixel reconstruction is simply the existence of SXVCS. For its application, we naturally propose an efficient method for determining the existence of XVCS with perfect white pixel reconstruction. Furthermore, we apply our theorem to $(2,n)$-XVCS and achieve the optimal state of $(2,n)$-XVCS.

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