Indexing large genome collections on a PC

Agnieszka Danek, Sebastian Deorowicz, Szymon Grabowski

Motivation: The availability of thousands of invidual genomes of one species should boost rapid progress in personalized medicine or understanding of the interaction between genotype and phenotype, to name a few applications. A key operation useful in such analyses is aligning sequencing reads against a collection of genomes, which is costly with the use of existing algorithms due to their large memory requirements. Results: We present MuGI, Multiple Genome Index, which reports all occurrences of a given pattern, in exact and approximate matching model, against a collection of thousand(s) genomes. Its unique feature is the small index size fitting in a standard computer with 16--32\,GB, or even 8\,GB, of RAM, for the 1000GP collection of 1092 diploid human genomes. The solution is also fast. For example, the exact matching queries are handled in average time of 39\,$\mu$s and with up to 3 mismatches in 373\,$\mu$s on the test PC with the index size of 13.4\,GB. For a smaller index, occupying 7.4\,GB in memory, the respective times grow to 76\,$\mu$s and 917\,$\mu$s. Availability: Software and Suuplementary material: \url{http://sun.aei.polsl.pl/mugi}.

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