Optimized Training Design for Wireless Energy Transfer

Yong Zeng, Rui Zhang

Radio-frequency (RF) enabled wireless energy transfer (WET), as a promising solution to provide cost-effective and reliable power supplies for energy-constrained wireless networks, has drawn growing interests recently. To overcome the significant propagation loss over distance, employing multi-antennas at the energy transmitter (ET) to more efficiently direct wireless energy to desired energy receivers (ERs), termed \emph{energy beamforming}, is an essential technique for enabling WET. However, the achievable gain of energy beamforming crucially depends on the available channel state information (CSI) at the ET, which needs to be acquired practically. In this paper, we study the design of an efficient channel acquisition method for a point-to-point multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) WET system by exploiting the channel reciprocity, i.e., the ET estimates the CSI via dedicated reverse-link training from the ER. Considering the limited energy availability at the ER, the training strategy should be carefully designed so that the channel can be estimated with sufficient accuracy, and yet without consuming excessive energy at the ER. To this end, we propose to maximize the \emph{net} harvested energy at the ER, which is the average harvested energy offset by that used for channel training. An optimization problem is formulated for the training design over MIMO Rician fading channels, including the subset of ER antennas to be trained, as well as the training time and power allocated. Closed-form solutions are obtained for some special scenarios, based on which useful insights are drawn on when training should be employed to improve the net transferred energy in MIMO WET systems.

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