Modal Independence Logic

Juha Kontinen, Julian-Steffen Müller, Henning Schnoor, Heribert Vollmer

This paper introduces modal independence logic MIL, a modal logic that can explicitly talk about independence among propositional variables. Formulas of MIL are not evaluated in worlds but in sets of worlds, so called teams. In this vein, MIL can be seen as a variant of V\"a\"an\"anen's modal dependence logic MDL. We show that MIL embeds MDL and is strictly more expressive. However, on singleton teams, MIL is shown to be not more expressive than usual modal logic, but MIL is exponentially more succinct. Making use of a new form of bisimulation, we extend these expressivity results to modal logics extended by various generalized dependence atoms. We demonstrate the expressive power of MIL by giving a specification of the anonymity requirement of the dining cryptographers protocol in MIL. We also study complexity issues of MIL and show that, though it is more expressive, its satisfiability and model checking problem have the same complexity as for MDL.

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