Adaptive $h$-refinement for reduced-order models

Kevin Carlberg

This work presents a method to adaptively refine reduced-order models \emph{a posteriori} without requiring additional full-order-model solves. The technique is analogous to mesh-adaptive $h$-refinement: it enriches the reduced-basis space online by `splitting' a given basis vector into several vectors with disjoint support. The splitting scheme is defined by a tree structure constructed offline via recursive $k$-means clustering of the state variables using snapshot data. The method identifies the vectors to split online using a dual-weighted-residual approach that aims to reduce error in an output quantity of interest. The resulting method generates a hierarchy of subspaces online without requiring large-scale operations or full-order-model solves. Further, it enables the reduced-order model to satisfy \emph{any prescribed error tolerance} regardless of its original fidelity, as a completely refined reduced-order model is mathematically equivalent to the original full-order model. Experiments on a parameterized inviscid Burgers equation highlight the ability of the method to capture phenomena (e.g., moving shocks) not contained in the span of the original reduced basis.

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