Two-tier Spatial Modeling of Base Stations in Cellular Networks

Yifan Zhou, Zhifeng Zhao, Qianlan Ying, Rongpeng Li, Xuan Zhou, Honggang Zhang

Poisson Point Process (PPP) has been widely adopted as an efficient model for the spatial distribution of base stations (BSs) in cellular networks. However, real BSs deployment are rarely completely random, due to environmental impact on actual site planning. Particularly, for multi-tier heterogeneous cellular networks, operators have to place different BSs according to local coverage and capacity requirement, and the diversity of BSs' functions may result in different spatial patterns on each networking tier. In this paper, we consider a two-tier scenario that consists of macrocell and microcell BSs in cellular networks. By analyzing these two tiers separately and applying both classical statistics and network performance as evaluation metrics, we obtain accurate spatial model of BSs deployment for each tier. Basically, we verify the inaccuracy of using PPP in BS locations modeling for either macrocells or microcells. Specifically, we find that the first tier with macrocell BSs is dispersed and can be precisely modelled by Strauss point process, while Matern cluster process captures the second tier's aggregation nature very well. These statistical models coincide with the inherent properties of macrocell and microcell BSs respectively, thus providing a new perspective in understanding the relationship between spatial structure and operational functions of BSs.

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