Collision Tolerant Packet Scheduling for Underwater Acoustic Localization

Hamid Ramezani, Fatemeh Fazel, Milica Stojanovic, Geert Leus

This article considers the joint problem of packet scheduling and self-localization in an underwater acoustic sensor network where sensor nodes are distributed randomly in an operating area. In terms of packet scheduling, our goal is to minimize the localization time, and to do so we consider two packet transmission schemes, namely a collision-free scheme (CFS), and a collision-tolerant scheme (CTS). The required localization time is formulated for these schemes, and through analytical results and numerical examples their performances are shown to be generally comparable. However, when the packet duration is short (as is the case for a localization packet), and the operating area is large (above 3km in at least one dimension), the collision-tolerant scheme requires a smaller localization time than the collision-free scheme. After gathering enough measurements, an iterative Gauss-Newton algorithm is employed by each sensor node for self-localization, and the Cramer Rao lower bound is evaluated as a benchmark. Although CTS consumes more energy for packet transmission, it provides a better localization accuracy. Additionally, in this scheme the anchor nodes work independently of each other, and can operate asynchronously which leads to a simplified implementation.

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