Dynamic and Multi-functional Labeling Schemes

Søren Dahlgaard, Mathias Bæk Tejs Knudsen, Noy Rotbart

We investigate labeling schemes supporting adjacency, ancestry, sibling, and connectivity queries in forests. In the course of more than 20 years, the existence of $\log n + O(\log \log)$ labeling schemes supporting each of these functions was proven, with the most recent being ancestry [Fraigniaud and Korman, STOC '10]. Several multi-functional labeling schemes also enjoy lower or upper bounds of $\log n + \Omega(\log \log n)$ or $\log n + O(\log \log n)$ respectively. Notably an upper bound of $\log n + 5\log \log n$ for adjacency+siblings and a lower bound of $\log n + \log \log n$ for each of the functions siblings, ancestry, and connectivity [Alstrup et al., SODA '03]. We improve the constants hidden in the $O$-notation. In particular we show a $\log n + 2\log \log n$ lower bound for connectivity+ancestry and connectivity+siblings, as well as an upper bound of $\log n + 3\log \log n + O(\log \log \log n)$ for connectivity+adjacency+siblings by altering existing methods. In the context of dynamic labeling schemes it is known that ancestry requires $\Omega(n)$ bits [Cohen, et al. PODS '02]. In contrast, we show upper and lower bounds on the label size for adjacency, siblings, and connectivity of $2\log n$ bits, and $3 \log n$ to support all three functions. There exist efficient adjacency labeling schemes for planar, bounded treewidth, bounded arboricity and interval graphs. In a dynamic setting, we show a lower bound of $\Omega(n)$ for each of those families.

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