Combining pattern-based CRFs and weighted context-free grammars

Rustem Takhanov, Vladimir Kolmogorov

We consider two models for the sequence labeling (tagging) problem. The first one is a {\em Pattern-Based Conditional Random Field }(\PB), in which the energy of a string (chain labeling) $x=x_1\ldots x_n\in D^n$ is a sum of terms over intervals $[i,j]$ where each term is non-zero only if the substring $x_i\ldots x_j$ equals a prespecified word $w\in \Lambda$. The second model is a {\em Weighted Context-Free Grammar }(\WCFG) frequently used for natural language processing. \PB and \WCFG encode local and non-local interactions respectively, and thus can be viewed as complementary. We propose a {\em Grammatical Pattern-Based CRF model }(\GPB) that combines the two in a natural way. We argue that it has certain advantages over existing approaches such as the {\em Hybrid model} of Bened{\'i} and Sanchez that combines {\em $\mbox{$N$-grams}$} and \WCFGs. The focus of this paper is to analyze the complexity of inference tasks in a \GPB such as computing MAP. We present a polynomial-time algorithm for general \GPBs and a faster version for a special case that we call {\em Interaction Grammars}.

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