Sweedler's duals and Sch\"utzenberger's calculus

Gérard H. E. Duchamp, Christophe Tollu

We describe the problem of Sweedler's duals for bialgebras as essentially characterizing the domain of the transpose of the multiplication. This domain is the set of what could be called ``representative linear forms'' which are the elements of the algebraic dual which are also representative on the multiplicative semigroup of the algebra. When the algebra is free, this notion is indeed equivalent to that of rational functions of automata theory. For the sake of applications, the range of coefficients has been considerably broadened, i.e. extended to semirings, so that the results could be specialized to the boolean and multiplicity cases. This requires some caution (use of ``positive formulas'', iteration replacing inversion, stable submodules replacing finite-rank families for instance). For the theory and its applications has been created a rational calculus which can, in return, be applied to harness Sweedler's duals. A new theorem of rational closure and application to Hopf algebras of use in Physics and Combinatorics is provided. The concrete use of this ``calculus'' is eventually illustrated on an example.

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